From Python to silicon

Not questions that I frequently ask but questions / issues I have run across that seem to reappear by other users.

## 2's Compliment Wrap

In the MyHDL FAQ normal binary wrapping is explained. Because MyHDL's integer act more like integers and less like bit vectors (good thing, see counting for more info). Some of the basic properties of bit vectors, like wrapping, have to be explicitly coded. I imagine there might be varied views on this. But I think only those that have come a custom to bit vectors wrapping or 2's complements wrapping will not like having to explicitly define the wrapping.

As explained in the Frequently Asked Questions to code an unsigned wrap the modulus can be used, for example a simple unsigned accumulator can be defined as:

```def acc_unsigned(clk, x, y, N=8):

@always(clk.posedge)
def rtl():
y.next = (y+x) % N

return rtl```

For signed (2's compliment) wrap the modulus can't be used because the modulus always results in a positive number (remainder of the divide). Each case needs to be explicitly defined.

One way of doing this is defining an intermediate value that can hold the max sum (twice the bit width) of the current value plus the new input. Then check the intermediate value and adjust accordingly.

```def acc_signed(clk, x, y, N=8):

z = Signal(intbv(0, max=2*y.max, min=2*y.min))

@always_comb
z.next = y + x

@always(clk.posedge)
def rtl():

if z >= N-1:
y.next = -N
elif z <= -N:
y.next = N-1
else:
y.next = z